Types of Fracture
There are many different types of fractures, but all can be placed in to one of four categories. These categories are –
Displaced – This is where the bone completely fractures, in one or more places, resulting in the pieces of bone either side of the break moving out of line with one another.
Non-dispalaced – This is where the bone fractures completely or partially, but the broken bone maintains its correct alignment.
Open/Compound – This is where the bone fractures and punctures through the surrounding flesh and skin. The bone may recede back into the body, but the puncture wound will remain visible.
Closed/Simple – This is where the bone fractures but does not puncture the skin or surrounding flesh.
Depending on what event causes the fracture, the bone will break in a certain way. Some fractures are charcateristic of the way in which they have been broken and some are more common in certain groups of people (age groups, ill people, very active people etc.).
Childhood Fractures - The way in which a child's bones fracture can often be different to the way in which a fully grown adult's would. As a person ages their bones become harder and stronger, losing some of the elasticity that they previously had. As a child's bones are slightly softer and more elastic, Green stick fractures and Hairline fractures are more common. This is as a result of the bone being able to bend slightly, reducing the breaking force acting on the bone, resulting in incomplete fractures.
Pathological Fractures - Particular diseases and disorders can result in the weakening of bones. If a fracture occurs as a result of an event that would not cause a fracture in a healthy bone, it is called a pathological fracture.
Stress Fracture - Bones can fracture as the result of repetitive impact or prolonged strain. Stress fractures are most common in athletes and occur in load bearing bones, such as the tibia and metatarsals. The fractures are most commonly hairline fractures, and present as a localized tenderness or dull pain that increases when put under even minor strain.
The types of fractures -